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PET nel cancro mammario


  1. Avril N. et al. Breast imaging with positron emission tomography and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: use and limitations. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 18 (20): 3495-3502 (2000).

  2. Kumar R. et al. Clinicopathologic factors associated with false negative FDG–PET in primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 98 (3): 267- 274 (2006).

  3. Litmanovich D. et al. Unexpected foci of 18F-FDG uptake in the breast detected by PET/CT: incidence and clinical significance. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.36(10):1558-1564 (2009)

  4. Kang B.J. et al. Clinical significance of incidental finding of focal activity in the breast at 18F-FDG PET/CT. American Journal of Roentgenology. 197(2):341-347 (2011)

  5. Kim M.Y. et al. Mammography and ultrasonography evaluation of unexpected focal 18F-FDG uptakes in breast on PET/CT. Acta Radiologica. 53(3):249-254 (2012)

  6. Dunne R.M. et al. The role of the breast radiologist in evaluation of breast incidentalomas detected on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT. The British Journal of Radiology. 86(1026):20130034(2013)

  7. Berg W.A. et al. High-Resolution Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission  Tomography with Compression (“Positron Emission Mammography”) is Highly Accurate in Depicting Primary Breast Cancer. The Breast Journal, 12 (4): 309–323 (2006)

  8. Berg W.A. Tailored Supplemental Screening for Breast Cancer: What Now  and What Next? American Journal of Roentgenology. 192:390–399 (2009).

  9. Berg W.A. Breast cancer: comparative effectiveness of positron emission mammography and MR imaging in presurgical planning for the ipsilateral breast. Radiology. 258(1): 59-72.

  10. Kalinyak J.E. et al. Breast cancer detection using high-resolution breast PET compared to whole-body PET or PET/CT. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 41(2): 260-75 (2014)


Valutazione prognostica

  1. Bos R. et al. Biologic correlates of (18)fluorodexoyglucose uptake in human breast cancer measured by positron emission tomography. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 20 (2): 379-387 (2002)

  2. Ikenaga N. et al. Standardized uptake values for breast carcinomas assessed by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography correlate with prognostic factors- Annals of Surgery. 73 (11): 1151-1157 (2007).

  3. Shimoda w. et al. The relationship between FDG uptake in PET scans and biological behavior in breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 14 (3): 260-268 (2007)

  4. Basu S. et al. Comparison of triple-negative and estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast carcinoma using quantitative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography imaging parameters: a potentially useful method for disease characterization. Cancer. 112 (5): 995-1000 (2008)

  5. Gill-Rendo A. et al. Association between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and prognostic parameters in breast cancer. British Journal of Surgery. 96 (2): 166-170 (2009)

  6. Osborne J.R. et al. 18F-FDG PET of locally invasive breast cancer and association of estrogen receptor status with standardized uptake value microarray and immunohistochemical analysis. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 51 (4): 543-550 (2010)

  7. Groheux D. et al. Correlation of hight 18F-FDG uptake to clinical, pathological and biological prognostic factors in breast cancer. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 38 (3): 426-435 (2011)

  8. Ekmekcioglu O. et al. Correlation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose utake with histopathological prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Nuclear Medicine Communications. 34: 1055-1067 (2013)

  9. Miyake K.K. et al. Journal Club: diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in predicting the clinicopathologic subtypes of invasive breast cancer. American Journal of Roentgenology.  203 (2): 272-279 (2014)

  10. Groheux D. Performance of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of breast cancer.  Radiology. 266 (2): 388-405 (2013)

  11. Inoue T. et al. Preoperative evaluation of prognosis in breast cancer patients by 18F2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.130 (5): 273-278 (2004)

  12. Uematsu T. et al Comparison of FDG PET and MRI for evaluating the tumor extent of breast cancer and the impact of FDG PET on the systemic staging and prognosis of patients who are candidates for breast-conserving therapy. Breast Cancer. 16 (2): 97-104 (2009)

  13. Alberini J.L. et al. 18F-fluorodeosyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging in the staging and prognosis of inflammatory breast cancer. Cancer. 115 (21): 5038-5047 (2009)

  14. Nakajo M. et al. FDG PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging for breast cancer: prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake values and apparent diffusion coefficient values of the primary lesion. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 37 (11): 2011-2020 (2010)

  15. Jin S. et al. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake predicts pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemoterapy for breast cancer: a retrospective cohort  study. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 107 (2): 180-187 (2013)

  16. Kadoya T. et al. Role  of maximum standardized uptake value in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-tomography/computed tomography predicts malignancy grade and prognosis of operable breast cancer: a multi-institute study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 141 (2): 269-275 (2013)

  17. Aogi K. et al. Utility of 18F FDG-PET/CT for predicting prognosis of luminal-type breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 150:209-217 (2015)



  1. Crippa F. et al. FDG-PET for axillary lynph node staging in primary breast cancer. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 31 (1): 97-102 (2004).

  2. Lovrics P.J. et al. A prospective evaluation of positron emission tomography scanning, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and standard axillary dissection for axillary staging in patients with early stage breast cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 11:846-853 (2004).

  3. Bellon J.R. et al. Evaluation of the internal mammary lymph nodes by FDG-PET in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 27:407-410 (2004).

  4. Wahl R.L. et al. Prospective multicenter study of axillary nodal staging by positron emission tomography in breast cancer: A report of the Staging Breast Cancer with PET Study Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 22 (2): 277-285 (2004)

  5. Veronesi U. et al. A comparative study on the value of FDG-PET and sentinel node biopsy to identify occult axillary metastases. Annals of Oncology. 18 (3): 472-478 (2007)

  6. Cooper  K.L. et al. Positron emission tomography (PET) for assessment of axillary lymph node status in early breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Surgical Oncology. 37 (3): 187-198 (2011)

  7. Zhang Y. et al. The role of F-FDG PET/CT in the dignosis of breast cancer and lymph nodes metastases and micrometastases may be limited. Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 17: 177-183 (2014)

  8. Ueda S. et al. Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 8: 165 (2008)

  9. Riegger C et al. Comparison of the diagnostic value of FDG-PET/CT and axillary ultrasound for the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients. Acta Radiologica. 53: 1092-1098 (2012)

  10. Cooper K.L. et al. Positron emission tomogrgaphy (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of axillary limph node metastases in early breast cancer. Systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment.  15 (4): 1-134 (2011)

  11. Eubank W.B. et al. 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to detect mediastinal or internal mammary metastases in breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 19 (15): 3516-3523 (2001)

  12. Groheux D. et al. Effect  of (18) F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with clinical stage II and III breast cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 71 (3): 695-704 (2008)

  13. Aukema T.S. et al. Detection of extra-axillary lymph node involvement with FDG PET/CT in patients with stage II-III breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 46: 3205-3210 (2010)

  14. Seo M.J. et al. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastasis with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with stage III breast cancer. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 41 (3): 438-445 (2014)

  15. Cermik T. F. et al. Impact of FDG PET on the preoperative staging of newly diagnosed breast cancer. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 35: 475-483 (2008)

  16. Groheux D. Performance of FDG PET/CT in the clinical management of breast cancer. Radiology. 266:2 (2013)

  17. Koolen al. Locoregional lymph node involvement on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Research  and Treatment. 135 (1): 231-240 (2012)

  18. Chen S.A. et al. Radiation field designe and patterns of locoregional recurrence following definitive radiotherapy for breast cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 85 (2): 309-314 (2013)

  19. Dose-Schwarz J. Detection of metastases in breast cancer patients: Comparison of FDG PET with chest X-ray, bone scintigraphy and ultrasound of the abdomen. Nuklearmedizin. 47 (3): 97-103 (2008)

  20. Dirisamer A. et al. Integrated contrast-enhanced diagnostic whole-body PET/CT as a first-line restaging modality in patients with suspected metastatic recurrence of breast cancer. European Journal of Radiology. 73: 294-299 (2010)

  21. Niikura N. et al. FDG-PET/CT compared with conventional imaging in the detection of distant metastases of primary breast cancer. The Oncologist. 16 (8): 1111-1119 (2011)

  22. Hong S. 18FDG PET-CT for diagnosis of distant metastases in breast cancer patients. A meta-analysis. Surgical Oncology. 22 (2): 139-143 (2013)

  23. Abo-Sheisha D.M., Badawy M.A. The diagnostic value of PET/CT in recurrence and distant metastasis in breast cancer patients and impact on disease free survival.  The egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 45: 1317-1324 (2014)

  24. Carkaci S. et al. Retrospective study of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer: Preliminary data. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 50 (2): 231-238 (2009)

  25. Yang W.T. et al. Inflammatory breast cancer: PET/CT, MRI, mammography, and sonography findings. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 109 (3):417-126 (2008)

  26. Yeh E.D. et al. What radiologist need to know about diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory breast cancer: A multidisciplinary approach. Radiographics. 33 (7): 2003-2017 (2013)

  27. Gradishar W.J. et al. Breast cancer version 3.2014. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 12 (4): 542-590 (2014)

  28. Groheux D. et al. Prognostic impact of (18)FDG-PET-CT findings in clinical stage III and IIB breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 104 (24): 1879-1887 (2012)

  29. Riedl C.C. et al. Retrospective analysis of 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging asymptomatic breast cancer patients younger than 40 years. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 55 (10): 1578-1583 (2014)

  30. Tevfik F. et al. Impact of FDG PET on the preoperative staging of diagnosed breast cancer. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 35: 475-483 (2008)

  31. Brennan M.E.,  Houssami N. Evaluation of the evidence on staging imaging for detection of asymptomatic distant metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer. The Breast. 21: 112-123 (2012)

  32. Kobayashi T. et al. Possible clinical cure of metastatic breast cancer: Lesson fron our 30-yera esperience with oligometastatic breast cancer patients and literature review.  Breast Cancer.  19 (3): 218-237 (2012)

  33. Di Lascio S., Pagani O. Oligometastatic breast cancer: A shift from palliative to potentially curative treatment? Breast Care. 9: 7-14 (2014)

  34. Rastogi S. et al: Oligometastatic breast cancer: A mini review. Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. 35 (3): 203-206 (2014)

  35. Puglisi F. et al. Baseline staging tests after a new diagnosis of breast cancer, further evidence of their limited indications. Annals of Oncology.  16: 263-266 (2005)

  36. Carr C.E. et al. The impact of FDG PET in the staging of breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (18 S): 530 (2006)

  37. Khan Q.J. et al. Integrated FDG-PET/TC for initial staging of breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 25 (18S): 558 (2007)

Valutazione della risposta al trattamento

  1. Schwartz-Dose J. et al. Monitoring primary systemic therapy of large of locally advanced breast cancer by using sequential positron emission tomography imaging with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 27 (4): 535-541 (2009)

  2. Martoni A.A. et al. Early (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d- glucose positron emission tomography may identify a subset of  patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who will not respond optimally to preoperative chemotherapy. Cancer. 116 (4): 805-813 (2010)

  3. Groheux D. et al. Early monitoring of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer with 18F-FDG PET/CT: defining a clinical aim. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 38 (3): 419-125 (2011)

  4. Groheux D. et al. Triple-negative breast cancer: Early assessment with 18F-FDG PET/CT during neoadjuvant chemotherapy idintifies patients who are unlikely to achieve a pathologic complete response and are at high risk of early relapse. Journal of Nuclear Medicine.  53 (2): 249-254 (2012)

  5. Li X. et al. Evaluation of therapeutic effect of tumor-targeted therapy. Oncotargets and Therapy. 5: 191-198 (2012)

  6. Gebhart G. et al. 18F-FDG PET/CT for early prediction of response to neoadjuvant lapatinib, trastuzumab, and their combination in HER2-positive breast cancer: Results from Neo- ALTTO. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 54 (11): 1862-1868 (2013)

  7. Tateishi U. et al. Bone metastases in patients with metastatic breast cancer: Morphologic and metabolic monitoring of response to systemic therapy with integrated PET/CT. Radiology.  247 (1): 189-196 (2008)

  8. Huyge V. et al. Heterogeneity of metabolic response to systemic therapy in metastatic breast cancer patients. Clinical Oncology. 22 (10): 818-827 (2010)

  9. Leygue E., Murphy L. A bi-faceted role of estrogen receptor b in breast cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer. 20: 127-139 (2013)

  10. Yan Y. et al. Expression of both Estrogen Receptor-beta 1 (ER-β1) and its co-regulator Steroid Receptor RNA Activator Protein (SRAP) are predictive for benefit from tamoxifen therapy in patients with Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER-α)-Negative Early Breast Cancer (EBC). Annals of Oncology. 24 (8): 1986-1993 (2013)

  11. Mortimer J.E. et al. Metabolic flare: indicator of hormone responsiveness in advanced breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology.  19 (11): 2797-2803 (2001)

  12. Dehdashti F. et al. PET-based estradiol challenge as a predictive biomarker of response to endocrine therapy in women with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 113 (3): 509-517 (2009)

  13. van Kruchten M. et al. PET imaging of estrogen reeptors as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer patients presenting with a clinical dilemma. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 53: 1-9 (2012)

Valutazione dell'MBC

  1. Pan al. FDG-PET and other imaging modalities for the evaluation of breast cancer recurrence and metastases: A meta-analysis.  Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.  136 (7): 1007-1022 (2010)

  2. Pennant M. et al. A systematic review of positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence. Health Technology Assessment.  14 (50) (2010)

  3. Nakai T. et al. Pitfalls of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of osteoblasic bone metastase in patients with breast cancer. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 32 (11): 1253-1258 (2005)

  4. Schirmeister H. et al. Detection of bone metastases in breast cancer by positron emission tomography. Radiologic Clinics of North America. 45 (4): 669-676 (2007)

  5. Morris P.G. et al. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography may render bone scintigraphy unnecessary to investigate suspected metastatic breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology.  28 (19): 3154-3259 (2010)

  6. Schneider-KolskyM.E. et al. The role of chemotherapeutic drugs in the evaluation of breast tumour response to chemotherapy using serial FDG-PET. Breast Cancer Research. 12 (3): R37 (2010)

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